DEEPWATER HORIZON rekonstruiert die Geschichte jener Männer auf der gleichnamigen Ölplattform, die bei dem Versuch, das Unvermeidliche abzuwenden. Die Deep Water Horizon war eine Ölplattform, die seit im Auftrag des Mineralölunternehmens BP p.l.c (ehemals British Petroleum) zur. Im April explodierte die Bohrinsel "Deepwater Horizon" im Golf von Mexiko. Seither hat die Trump-Regierung Sicherheits- und.
Die schlimmste Ölkatastrophe: Zehn Jahre Deepwater Horizon | BR24Die Ölpest im Golf von Mexiko wurde durch die Explosion der Ölbohrplattform Deepwater Horizon am April ausgelöst. Die vom April bis zum Die Deep Water Horizon war eine Ölplattform, die seit im Auftrag des Mineralölunternehmens BP p.l.c (ehemals British Petroleum) zur. Am April explodierte die Ölplattform Deepwater Horizon im Golf von Mexiko. Fast Millionen Liter Öl und Tonnen Gas.
Deep Water Horizont Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoDeepwater Horizon (2016) – Official Teaser Trailer - Mark Wahlberg
Steam Spiele Umsonst Karnevalszeit bertrgt Deep Water Horizont SWR die groen Sitzungen aus Mainz wie den Klassiker "Mainz bleibt Mainz wie es singt und lacht" und den Rosenmontagszug. - InhaltsverzeichnisDementsprechend lange wird es Avantgarde Fashion, bis sich die Bestände Josh Herdman Mma erholen - wenn sie es tun, sagt der Biologe Ryan Fikes von der Umweltschutzorganisation National Wildlife Federation. Built in , Deepwater Horizon was an oil rig that operated in the Gulf of Mexico for approximately ten years before the BP oil spill. Built in South Korea by Hyundai Heavy Industries, Deepwater Horizon was put into service in The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was an industrial disaster that began on April 20, , in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8 to 31 percent larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill, also in the Gulf of Mexico. A dramatization of the disaster in April , when the offshore drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon exploded, resulting in the worst oil spill in American history. Deepwater Horizon oil spill, also called Gulf of Mexico oil spill, largest marine oil spill in history, caused by an April 20, , explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig—located in the Gulf of Mexico, approximately 41 miles (66 km) off the coast of Louisiana —and its subsequent sinking on April Deepwater Horizon oil rig: fire. Deepwater Horizon was an ultra-deepwater (35, ft [11, m]), dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore drilling rig owned by Transocean. Built in in South Korea by Hyundai Heavy Industries, the rig was commissioned by R&B Falcon (a later asset of Transocean), registered in Majuro, and leased to BP from until September Die Deepwater Horizon war eine Bohrplattform für die Erdölexploration im Golf von Mexiko. Die Firma Transocean stellte sie in Dienst und betrieb sie im. Die Ölpest im Golf von Mexiko wurde durch die Explosion der Ölbohrplattform Deepwater Horizon am April ausgelöst. Die vom April bis zum Auch zehn Jahre nach der Ölkatastrophe um Deepwater Horizon hat sich der Golf von Mexiko nicht wieder erholt. Auswirkungen in der Natur. Im April explodierte die Bohrinsel "Deepwater Horizon" im Golf von Mexiko. Seither hat die Trump-Regierung Sicherheits- und.
Subsurface oil remained offshore and in fine silts. Regular cleanup patrols were no longer considered justified but cleanup was being conducted on an as-needed basis, in response to public reports.
According to researchers, there is "some evidence it may have caused lesions in fish caught in that area".
First, BP unsuccessfully attempted to close the blowout preventer valves on the wellhead with remotely operated underwater vehicles. While this technique had worked in shallower water, it failed here when gas combined with cold water to form methane hydrate crystals that blocked the opening at the top of the dome.
BP then inserted a riser insertion tube into the pipe and a stopper-like washer around the tube plugged at the end of the riser and diverted the flow into the insertion tube.
A final device was created to attach a chamber of larger diameter than the flowing pipe with a flange that bolted to the top of the blowout preventer and a manual valve set to close off the flow once attached.
On July 15, the device was secured and time was taken closing the valves to ensure the attachment under increasing pressure until the valves were closed completing the temporary measures.
Transocean's Development Driller III started drilling a first relief well on May 2, GSF Development Driller II started drilling a second relief on May 16, Pumping continued for eight hours, at the end of which the well was declared to be "in a static condition.
On September 3, , the ton failed blowout preventer was removed from the well and a replacement blowout preventer was installed.
In May , BP admitted they had "discovered things that were broken in the sub-surface" during the "top kill" effort. Oil slicks were reported in March  and August ,   in March  and October ,    and in January The USCG initially said the oil was too dispersed to recover and posed no threat to the coastline,  but later warned BP and Transocean that they might be held financially responsible for cleaning up the new oil.
According to BP and the USCG, it is "not oil and it's not harmful. In January , BP said that they were continuing to investigate possible sources of the oil sheen.
Chemical data implied that the substance might be residual oil leaking from the wreckage. If that proves to be the case, the sheen can be expected to eventually disappear.
Another possibility is that it is formation oil escaping from the subsurface, using the Macondo well casing as flow conduit, possibly intersecting a naturally occurring fault, and then following that to escape at the surface some distance from the wellhead.
If it proves to be oil from the subsurface, then that could indicate the possibility of an indefinite release of oil.
The oil slick was comparable in size to naturally occurring oil seeps and was not large enough to pose an immediate threat to wildlife. The fundamental strategies for addressing the spill were containment, dispersal and removal.
In May , a local native set up a network for people to volunteer their assistance in cleaning up beaches.
Boat captains were given the opportunity to offer the use of their boat to help clean and prevent the oil from further spreading.
To assist with the efforts the captains had to register their ships with the Vessels of Opportunity, however an issue arose when more boats registered than actually participated in the clean up efforts - only a third of the registered boats.
Many local supporters were disappointed with BP's slow response, prompting the formation of The Florida Key Environmental Coalition. This coalition gained significant influence in the clean up of the oil spill to try and gain some control over the situation.
Booms extend 18—48 inches 0. The Louisiana barrier island plan was developed to construct barrier islands to protect the coast of Louisiana.
The plan was criticised for its expense and poor results. For a time, a group called Matter of Trust, citing insufficient availability of manufactured oil absorption booms, campaigned to encourage hair salons, dog groomers and sheep farmers to donate hair, fur and wool clippings, stuffed in pantyhose or tights, to help contain oil near impacted shores, a technique dating back to the Exxon Valdez disaster.
The spill was also notable for the volume of Corexit oil dispersant used and for application methods that were "purely experimental.
A analysis conducted by Earthjustice and Toxipedia showed that the dispersant could contain cancer-causing agents, hazardous toxins and endocrine-disrupting chemicals.
The dangers are even greater when poured into the source of a spill, because they are picked up by the current and wash through the Gulf.
Repeated or excessive exposure Corexit ECA and Corexit ECA were the principal variants. Underwater injection of Corexit into the leak may have created the oil plumes which were discovered below the surface.
In late , a study from Georgia Tech and Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Environmental Pollution journal reported that Corexit used during the BP oil spill had increased the toxicity of the oil by 52 times.
The three basic approaches for removing the oil from the water were: combustion, offshore filtration, and collection for later processing.
According to EPA 's report, the released amount is not enough to pose an added cancer risk to workers and coastal residents, while a second research team concluded that there was only a small added risk.
Oil was collected from water by using skimmers. In total 2, various skimmers were used. Many large-scale skimmers exceeded the limit.
After the well was capped, the cleanup of shore became the main task of the response works. Two main types of affected coast were sandy beaches and marshes.
On beaches the main techniques were sifting sand, removing tar balls, and digging out tar mats manually or by using mechanical devices.
Dispersants are said to facilitate the digestion of the oil by microbes. Mixing dispersants with oil at the wellhead would keep some oil below the surface and in theory, allowing microbes to digest the oil before it reached the surface.
Various risks were identified and evaluated, in particular that an increase in microbial activity might reduce subsea oxygen levels, threatening fish and other animals.
Several studies suggest that microbes successfully consumed part of the oil. Valentine, a professor of microbial geochemistry at UC Santa Barbara , said that the capability of microbes to break down the leaked oil had been greatly exaggerated.
Genetically modified Alcanivorax borkumensis was added to the waters to speed digestion. On May 18, , BP was designated the lead "Responsible Party" under the Oil Pollution Act of , which meant that BP had operational authority in coordinating the response.
The first video images were released on 12 May, and further video images were released by members of Congress who had been given access to them by BP.
Exceptions for these restrictions were granted on a case-by-case basis dependent on safety issues, operational requirements, weather conditions, and traffic volume.
Local and federal authorities citing BP's authority denied access to members of the press attempting to document the spill from the air, from boats, and on the ground, blocking access to areas that were open to the public.
In one example, the U. Coast Guard stopped Jean-Michel Cousteau 's boat and allowed it to proceed only after the Coast Guard was assured that no journalists were on board.
The CBS crew was told by the authorities: "this is BP's rules, not ours," when trying to film the area. The FAA denied that BP employees or contractors made decisions on flights and access, saying those decisions were made by the FAA and Coast Guard.
On 15 April , BP announced that cleanup along the coast was substantially complete, while the United States Coast Guard work continued using physical barriers such as floating booms, the cleanup workers' objective was to keep the oil from spreading any further.
They used skimmer boats to remove a majority of the oil and they used sorbents to absorb any remnant of oil like a sponge.
Although that method did not remove the oil completely, chemicals called dispersants are used to hasten the oil's degradation to prevent the oil from doing further damage to the marine habitats below the surface water.
The State of Louisiana was funded by BP to do regular testing of fish, shellfish, water, and sand. Initial testing regularly showed detectable levels of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, a chemical used in the clean up.
Testing over the past year reported by GulfSource. The PAHs were most concentrated near the Louisiana Coast, but levels also jumped 2—3 fold in areas off Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.
A study of the effects of the oil spill on bluefin tuna funded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA , Stanford University , and the Monterey Bay Aquarium and published in the journal Science , found that the toxins from oil spills can cause irregular heartbeats leading to cardiac arrest.
Calling the vicinity of the spill "one of the most productive ocean ecosystems in the world", the study found that even at very low concentrations "PAH cardiotoxicity was potentially a common form of injury among a broad range of species in the vicinity of the oil.
The scientists said that their findings would most likely apply to other large predator fish and "even to humans, whose developing hearts are in many ways similar.
The oil dispersant Corexit , previously only used as a surface application, was released underwater in unprecedented amounts, with the intent of making it more easily biodegraded by naturally occurring microbes.
Thus, oil that would normally rise to the surface of the water was emulsified into tiny droplets and remained suspended in the water and on the sea floor.
Pelican eggs contained "petroleum compounds and Corexit". Christopher Haney, Harold Geiger, and Jeffrey Short, three researchers with extensive experience in environmental monitoring and post-spill mortality assessments, over one million coastal birds died as a direct result of the Deepwater Horizon spill.
These numbers, coupled with the National Audubon Society scientists' observations of bird colonies and bird mortality well after the acute phase, have led scientists to conclude that more than one million birds ultimately succumbed to the lethal effects of the Gulf oil spill.
In July , it was reported that the spill was "already having a 'devastating' effect on marine life in the Gulf". BP officials deny that the disease conditions are related to the spill, saying that dolphin deaths actually began being reported before the BP oil spill.
Before the spill there were an average of strandings per year; since the spill the number has jumped to roughly In , tar balls continued to wash up along the Gulf coast     and in , tar balls could still be found in on the Mississippi and Louisiana coasts, along with oil sheens in marshes and signs of severe erosion of coastal islands, brought about by the death of trees and marsh grass from exposure to the oil.
In , researchers found that oil on the bottom of the seafloor did not seem to be degrading,  and observed a phenomenon called a "dirty blizzard": oil in the water column began clumping around suspended sediments, and falling to the ocean floor in an "underwater rain of oily particles.
A bluefin tuna study in Science found that oil already broken down by wave action and chemical dispersants was more toxic than fresh oil.
A study by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , published in PLOS ONE , links the sharp increase in dolphin deaths to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
On 12 April , a research team reported that 88 percent of about baby or stillborn dolphins within the spill area "had abnormal or under-developed lungs", compared to 15 percent in other areas.
The study was published in the April Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. The United States Department of Health and Human Services set up the GuLF Study in June in response to these reports.
The study is run by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences , and will last at least five years. Mike Robicheux, a Louisiana physician, described the situation as "the biggest public health crisis from a chemical poisoning in the history of this country.
Following the 26 May hospitalization of seven fishermen that were working in the cleanup crew, BP requested that the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health perform a Health Hazard Evaluation.
This was to cover all offshore cleanup activities, BP later requested a second NIOSH investigation of onshore cleanup operations. Tests for chemical exposure in the seven fishermen were negative; NIOSH concluded that the hospitalizations were most likely a result of heat, fatigue, and terpenes that were being used to clean the decks.
Review of 10 later hospitalizations found that heat exposure and dehydration were consistent findings but could not establish chemical exposure. NIOSH personnel performed air monitoring around cleanup workers at sea, on land, and during the application of Corexit.
Air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PAHs never exceeded permissible exposure levels. A limitation of their methodology was that some VOCs may have already evaporated from the oil before they began their investigation.
In their report, they suggest the possibility that respiratory symptoms might have been caused by high levels of ozone or reactive aldehydes in the air, possibly produced from photochemical reactions in the oil.
NIOSH did note that many of the personnel involved were not donning personal protective equipment gloves and impermeable coveralls as they had been instructed to and emphasized that this was important protection against transdermal absorption of chemicals from the oil.
Heat stress was found to be the most pressing safety concern. Workers reported that they were not allowed to use respirators, and that their jobs were threatened if they did.
OSHA will require that BP provide certain protective clothing, but not respirators. A survey of the health effects of the spill on cleanup workers reported "eye, nose and throat irritation; respiratory problems; blood in urine, vomit and rectal bleeding; seizures; nausea and violent vomiting episodes that last for hours; skin irritation, burning and lesions; short-term memory loss and confusion; liver and kidney damage; central nervous system effects and nervous system damage; hypertension; and miscarriages".
James Diaz, writing for the American Journal of Disaster Medicine , said these ailments appearing in the Gulf reflected those reported after previous oil spills, like the Exxon Valdez.
Diaz warned that "chronic adverse health effects, including cancers, liver and kidney disease, mental health disorders, birth defects and developmental disorders should be anticipated among sensitive populations and those most heavily exposed".
Diaz also believes neurological disorders should be expected. Two years after the spill, a study initiated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health found biomarkers matching the oil from the spill in the bodies of cleanup workers.
These studies also showed that the bodies of former spill cleanup workers carry biomarkers of "many chemicals contained in the oil". A study that investigated the health effects among children in Louisiana and Florida living less than 10 miles from the coast found that more than a third of the parents reported physical or mental health symptoms among their children.
The parents reported "unexplained symptoms among their children, including bleeding ears, nose bleeds, and the early start of menstruation among girls," according to David Abramson, director of Columbia University's National Center for Disaster Preparedness.
Women who suffered a high degree of economic disruption as a result of spill were significantly more likely to report wheezing; headaches; watery, burning, itchy eyes and stuffy, itchy, runny nose.
The spill had a strong economic impact to BP  and also the Gulf Coast 's economy sectors such as offshore drilling, fishing and tourism.
Estimates of lost tourism dollars were projected to cost the Gulf coastal economy up to Salazar , lifted the moratorium finding it too broad, arbitrary and not adequately justified.
On 28 April , the National Energy Board of Canada, which regulates offshore drilling in the Canadian Arctic and along the British Columbia Coast , issued a letter to oil companies asking them to explain their argument against safety rules which require same-season relief wells.
In October , the United States Department of the Interior 's Minerals Management Service was dissolved after it was determined it had exercised poor oversight over the drilling industry.
Three new agencies replaced it, separating the regulation, leasing, and revenue collection responsibilities respectively, among the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement , the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management , and Office of Natural Resources Revenue.
In March , BP was again allowed to bid for oil and gas leases. On 30 April, President Obama dispatched the Secretaries of the Department of Interior and Homeland Security , as well as the EPA Administrator and NOAA to the Gulf Coast to assess the disaster.
Make no mistake: we will fight this spill with everything we've got for as long as it takes. We will make BP pay for the damage their company has caused.
And we will do whatever's necessary to help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. Public opinion polls in the U.
Industry claimed that disasters are infrequent and that this spill was an isolated incident and rejected claims of a loss of industry credibility.
Deepwater Horizon explosion Volume and extent Efforts to stem the spill Timeline May June July August Anadarko Petroleum BP Mitsui Oil Exploration.
Cameron International Halliburton Nalco Holding Company Transocean Wild Well Control. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Flow Rate Technical Group Minerals Management Service National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling Unified Command U.
Coast Guard Worst Case Discharge. Bob Dudley Tony Hayward Doug Suttles Carl-Henric Svanberg Darryl Willis.
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Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. DID YOU KNOW? Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. A dramatization of the disaster in April , when the offshore drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon exploded, resulting in the worst oil spill in American history.
Director: Peter Berg. Stars: Mark Wahlberg , Kurt Russell , Douglas M. Added to Watchlist. Im Verlauf der Untersuchungen zum Unglück wurde bekannt, dass die Nationale Aufsichtsbehörde Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement noch unter dem Namen Minerals Management Service auf die Ausarbeitung eines früher vorgeschriebenen Notfallplans für Unfälle bei vielen Plattformen im Golf von Mexiko verzichtet hatte.
Wenige Wochen vor dem Unglück drang so viel Erdgas in das Bohrloch, dass an Deck der Bohrplattform ein Notstopp aller potentiell feuergefährlichen Aktivitäten verhängt werden musste.
In den Folgewochen kam es immer wieder zu heftigen Gaseinbrüchen. Das Risiko durch Erdgaseinbrüche in Zusammenhang mit diesem Bohrvorhaben war von BP ein Jahr zuvor als vernachlässigbar bezeichnet worden, obgleich von Regierungsseite deutlich vor solchen gewarnt worden war.
Da die Deepwater Horizon eine Explorationsbohrplattform, aber keine Förderplattform war, sollte die fertiggestellte Bohrung damit versiegelt werden.
Das Öl sollte später von einer anderen Plattform gefördert werden. Infolge eines starken Druckanstiegs im Bohrloch des Mississippi Canyon Block kam es jedoch zu einem Blowout : Eine Fontäne von Bohrschlamm, Gas und Öl trat aus.
Die für diesen Fall vorgesehene Schutzvorrichtung direkt am Meeresboden, das mehrfach redundant konzipierte zentrale Ventilsystem Blowout-Preventer , kurz: BOP , wurde zwar betätigt, funktionierte jedoch nicht.
Verschärfend für die Auswirkungen des Unglücks war, dass die Dieselgeneratoren der Plattform das ausströmende Gas ansaugten.
Dadurch erhöhte sich deren Leistung und Drehzahl unabhängig von der Kraftstoffzufuhr — der damit verbundene Spannungsanstieg führte zur Zerstörung von Teilen der Elektrik der Bohrplattform.
Es wurde versucht, den Bereitschaftsgenerator zu starten, um Strom für Feuerlöschpumpen und Druckluft zum Starten der Hauptmotoren zu erhalten.
Nach zehn bis fünfzehn Minuten wurde der Versuch erfolglos abgebrochen. Der eingesetzte 15 Meter hohe und Tonnen schwere  Blowout-Preventer BOP , der im Notfall das Ausströmen von Öl und Gas stoppen sollte, wies mehrere Mängel auf:.
Als BP nach dem Unfall von Transocean technische Zeichnungen des verwendeten BOP anforderte, stellte man fest, dass diese nicht zu dem verbauten BOP passten, da dieser offenbar stark modifiziert worden war.
Die Firma Transocean analysierte im Jahr den auf der Deepwater Horizon verwendeten BOP der Firma Cameron. In der Zusammenfassung dieser Analyse werden Fehlerfälle aufgelistet, die zum Versagen des BOP führen können.
In early July the LMRP cap was removed for several days so that a more permanent seal could be installed; this capping stack was in place by July Though the leak had slowed, it was estimated by a government-commissioned panel of scientists that 4,, barrels of oil had already leaked into the gulf.
Only about , barrels had been captured. Though similar to the failed top kill, mud could be injected at much lower pressures during the static kill because of the stabilizing influence of the capping stack.
The defective BOP and the capping stack were removed in early September and replaced by a functioning BOP. This entailed pumping cement through a channel—known as a relief well—that paralleled and eventually intersected the original well.
Construction of two such wells had begun in May. On September 17 the bottom kill maneuver was successfully executed through the first relief well.
The second had been intended to serve as a backup and was not completed. Two days later, following a series of pressure tests, it was announced that the well was completely sealed.
Claims by several research groups that subsurface plumes of dispersed hydrocarbons had been detected in May were initially dismissed by BP and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA.